Mirza Ebrahim (Ibrahim) Khan Hakim-el-Molk <<Hakimi>> 
One Of The Founding Fathers Of Democracy In Iran, 
Member of Parliament, Secretary of State, Prime Minister, 
Member of Founders Constitutional Parliament,  
Father Of The House Of Parliament, Leader of the Senate
Patriot and Gentleman

 This page is very much under construction after 15 odd years. That is because I keep learning new stuff about Ebrahim Hakimi and his achievements. He clearly was not a demagogue and he did not leave any memoires making the task harder. In 2012 I learnt from Hamid Hakimi's memories the fantastic story about the secrets behind the confrontation between the Hakimi government and the two old colonial adversaries Russia (now Soviet Union) and Britain.  New material has come to light as well as the material I have been collecting over the years. I have therefore provided much of what I have found out on this page. One day I hope to give it structure. Please be patient. To see the latest material *** CLICK HERE *** to see of items to be added, rare photographs and documents

Foreword: In my rebel-without-a-cause-days if anyone said to me that one day I will be spending precious time to collate and translate material about Hakim-el-Molk, I would have treated him or her as a madman. Who would be interested, in the words of Reader Bullard the Persian-phobic British Ambassodor to Iran during the Second World War, in "an old gentleman who had never done much in life except carry the hubble-bubble of the last of the Qajars"? The odd thing about that description is that the same "old gentleman" is to this day accused by some Iranians of being one of the most servile servants of the British and a major Anglophile because he was a senior Freemason. The Russians and their cronies were the source of this false accusation, yet the British were equally derogatory.  Who would be interested in an old gentleman of whom it was said that he had to ask his driver every morning to remind him which ministry he was attending? Yet unlike most egoist politicians, he has left no word, no self justification, no revision of history and no defence of his name or reputation. Nothing.  Let the record speak for itself. And that's how I came to know and respect his achievements. 

For those not familiar with Iranian politics, it is very difficult to explain its difficulties & pitfalls.  During the life of Hakim-el-Molk, Iran was in the words of the Morgan Shuster - an American appointed by the Persian government to reform its finances whom it had to remove after ultimatums by Russia and Britain - being "strangled" by the two colonial powers Russia and Britain using Iran as one of the important battlegrounds in  the 'Great Game' to control near Asia and the "Jewel in the Crown" India.   Suffice to say, after 1906 when the people obtained constitutional rights,  the country has never had the luxury of stability to develop democratic traditions. Throughout ages the favourite, therefore quickest, path to success for any politician has been to discredit rivals (and if that didn't work they would concentrate on literally eliminating rivals). And when democracy arrived they still used the same methods which they pursued with more gusto given the freedom of the Press. Again in the words of Ballard, "There is a dead set against any official who wishes to be honest, because he shows up the others, and as the common weapon in such cases is a false accusation, the fouler the better", or as he said in relation to the press in Iran:   "No press could be more scurilous & irresponsible than the Persian press' and The venom in some of the newspapers would be surprising if one did not know that a large number of them only print a few copies and live by blackmail.  I admit that the problem of the press and the Parliament in a country like this, where the people are irresponsible and almost to a man corrupt, is beyond me, and that I do not see how the country can escape the choice between anarchy and despotism.’  What he fails to mention is HMG's representatives including himself, made full use of these methods.  These tactics were employed heavily by the representatives of the two main superpowers, Britain and Russia, engaged in the 'Great Game' since the previous century, to discredit the leading figures in the opposite camp and more importantly the independent patriotic politicians struggling for an independent Iran.  Ebrahim Hakimi did his duty whenever it was required of him and endured the innuendo, false accusation and attacks on his character from all quarters without complaint.

Selected Achievements

Qajar Era
Mozzafar-e-Din Shah's Doctor, 
One of the Founding Fathers of Democracy / Leaders of the 1906 Revolution, 
Member of the democratic National Committee governing Iran after Mohammad Ali Shah was deposed
Reform of The Qajar Court
Minister of Finance (during Morgan Shuster's Tenure in Iran, Creation of Crown Jewels Commission)
Founder of the Royal School for the King
Expelled Ahmad Shah's Russian Tutor
Introduced legislation to send top students overseas
Founder of  the first teacher training college
Founder of the School of Fine Arts

Pahlavi Era
Organised the millinery celebrations to honour the great Iranian poet Ferdosi
Founder of  Ministry For Sports
Three times Prime Minister 1944-46, served notice on the Allies to leave Iran after the Second World War
The Iranian Question - Complaint to the Security Council
Saving Azarbaijan From Separation by the occupying forces of the Soviet Union or their lackies the "Democrats"

The Iranian Ministry Of Education Monthly Journal

Biography Of
Mirza Ebrahim Khan Hakim-el-Molk
The Fourteenth Secretary Of State For Education

Author: Eghbal Yaghmaie

Translation Notes: As usual with Iranian History a number of calendarical inconsistencies were found in Mr Yaghmaie's account. All the errors identified have been corrected in order to keep this site managable, otherwise the text is translated as is. If anyone is interested in the historical details and reasons for my corrections or you identify additional errors, please feel free to contact me. The pictures are not part of the original and have been added by me.

Young Ebrahim in ParisEbrahim Hakim-el-Molk is the son of Mirza Abolhassam Hakim Bashi, son of Mirza Ali Naghi, son of Mirza Hassan Brojerdie [Brojerdie means a native of Brojerd] and was born in 1871. He spent the years 1889 to 1892 at Dar Al Fonoon college in Teheran studying French and natural sciences in preparation to study medicine. He was quite young when his father passed away and his brother Nossrat-ol-Hokama [literally the guide to all doctors] accepted the responsibility to bring him up as his guardian.

In 1892 a number of Iranian upper class families and intelligentsia persuaded the Shah [Nasser-e-Din Shah Qajar] to send some thirty of their children to Europe for higher education. At first Nasser-e-Din Shah gave his consent. But later withdrew it and forbade any students leaving Iran for higher education as he became fearful of new ideas and the trend for democratic ideals amongst the young.

Young Hakim Al Molk in ParisPersian Government Embelm From Foreign Office Letter to Ebrahim Hakimi Dated 1906In 1893 following an outbreak of Cholera epidemic in Teheran, Ebrahim who was very enthusiastic about education and learning traveled to Tabriz and asked his uncle, Mirza Mahmoud Khan Hakim-el-Molk1, to use his influence with the Crown Prince [Mozzafar-e-Din Mirza] and obtain the Prince's consent to leave Iran. He complied with his nephew's wish and Ebrahim in 1894 went to Paris via Caucasus and Russia and entered the medical school. He graduate from medical college after nine years and married a French girl.

In his first visit to Europe2 when Mozzafar-e-Din Shah met this learned, enlightened, honest and calm young man took him into his service and brought him into the close circle of his advisers and special companions.

1902 State Visit to Britain, with His Majesties Mozzafar-e-Din Shah and King Edward VIIWhen on Thursday 1st of August 1900 there was an attempt on the life of Mozzafar-e-Din Shah in Paris, Ebrahim witnessed the  incident. On this day, the Shah and his entourage were invited by the French Foreign Secretary Mr. De la Cassé to visit the Versailles Palace. Mirza Mahmoud Khan Hakim-el-Molk, Ebrahim's uncle, skillfully and quickly grabbed the assassin's hand, squeezing so hard that the weapon was released and the Shah was saved from danger. [Also available is the Keyhan article summarizing French magazines' articles on the subject]

At the Qajar Court (Mozzafarie)Hakim-el-Molk who after ten years of living in Europe was an enlightened thinker and a freedom loving liberal was not happy with his role in the court and after the death of Mozzafar-e-Din Shah3 left the Court distancing himself from the courtiers and practiced medicine and collaborated with other liberals to establish constitutional democracy.

He was elected as a member of the first Parliament by the other members [the reason he was elected by the other MPs was because he was nominated by Members of Parliament as a replacement candidate after the elections]. He was elected from Tabriz and Teheran for the second Parliament and accepted to represent Tabriz.

When the Parliament came under bombardment by the forces of Mohammad Ali Shah and the parliamentarians' resistance failed, Hakim-el-Molk and Momtaz-ol-Doleh, the Leader of Parliament, Mr. Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabie, Seyyed Abdullah Behbahanie [members of the clergy and the two most famous and popular leaders of the 1906 revolution] and some other parliamentarians sought sanctuary in Amin-ol-Doleh's Park [residence] and when the soldiers rushed there to arrest the group, Hakim-el-Molk and Momtaz-ol-Doleh managed to escape arrest by hiding in the huge gardens behind some trees . After the soldiers left they sought refuge with the Head Gardner of the park who was a friend of Momtaz-ol-Doleh's Heasd Servant. The Gardner found them a safe place to hide. Later under the cover of darkness they went to the house of Momtaz-ol-Doleh's servant and from there managed to get to the French Embassy in order to seek sanctuary. After a few days Hakim-el-Molk left Iran and went into [a short] exile.

Ebrahim Hakimi attending Mozzafar Al Din Shah's Summer Camp in Shemiran (?)Many Iranian liberals and supporters of freedom form different classes of society took an active part in organising the constitutional revolution [in 1906]. The following leaders stood out: Tabatabie [aforementioned], Akhoond Mullah Kazem Khorassanie, Sheikh Abdullah Mazandaranie, Haj Mirza Hossein son of Haj Mirza Khalil Teheranie, Haj Mirza Nassr-Allah Malek Al Mottakalemien, Sattar Khan, Bagher Khan, Haj Aligholie Khan Saradar Assad Bakhtiarie, Abdolhossein Moez-ol-Sultan, Valikhan Tonekabonie, Mirza Jahangir Khan Soor Esrafil, Mirza Seyyed Hossein the founder of theal Hadid newspaper, Mirza Hossein Vaez Tabrizi, Mirza Ali Akbar Khan Dehkhoda, Yefrem Khan, Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh Tabatabie, Moazed-ol-Saltaneh, Hossein Parviz, Abdolrahim Khalkhalie, Mirza Davood Khan Ardabelie and Ebrahim Hakim-el-Molk.

Hakimi was of the most effective members of the National Committe [established to restore democracy and constitutional monarchy]. This committee whose membership comprised Malek-ol-Mottakalemien, Seyyed Jamal Vaez, Mirza Jahangir Khan Soor Esrafil, Taghi Zadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza Mossavat, Seyyed Jalik Ardebili, Seyyed Abdolrahim Khalkhalie and Hakim-el-Molk had a great role in restoring democracy and constitutional monarchy.

1911 Letter to Ebrahim From Nasser al-Din Shah's Son, Prince Zel al-SultanOn Friday 16th July 1909 Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar, after a period of fiercely resisting democracy, had no choice but to give up the Iranian throne and together with his closest relations and companions such as Amir Bahador Minister of War, Mojalel Sultan and some mercenary soldiers sought refuge in the Russian Embassy. The leaders of the freedom fighters[Mojahedin], the senior clergy supporting the constitutional movement, a group of the Members of the last Parliament [in effect dissolved after the bombardment of the Parliament], most of the nobles and leaders of the different classes gathered in Baharestan [an area of Teheran housing the Parliament] and formed an assembly called The Higher Assemble [Majlis Aali] to manage the affairs of state. About 300 people took part in this assembly and because it was not possible for everyone to take part in making urgent decisions or decide priority of laws to be enacted, they elected an interim government in form of a National Committee to carefully decide on priority of laws for the assembly to legislate or submit questions to be decided by the assembly. One of the most trustworthy, effective, honest and influential members of this commission was Hakim-el-Molk. The above commission on the afternoon of the same day, after careful consideration of the national interest and the legislation required, developed and submitted the following urgent legislation to the Higher Assembly which was passed immediately by the assembly:

1. The immediate dethronement of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
2. The Crown Prince Ahamad Mirza was chosen as the next Qajar King
3. Azd-el-Molk was chosen as the Regent [as Ahmad Mirza was a mere 12 years old
4. Vali Khan Sepahdar Azzam was chosen as Minister Of War
5. Haj Ali Gholi Khan Sardar Assad was chosen as Secretary of State for the Interior Ministry or the Home Office

By the end of August most of the members of this commission had changed and it was reduced in numbers. The new commission was called the National Executive Committee and its membership comprised: Sepahadar [Marshall] Tonekabonie [of Tonekabon, a beautiful region on the Caspian coast], Sardar [General] Mansour, Prince Farmanfarma, Haj Ali Gholie Khan Bakhtiari Sardar Assad, Hakim-el-Molk, Mostashar-ol-Doleh, Taghi Zadeh, Hosseingholie Navab, Vossogh-ol-Doleh and the secretaries of state chosen for the ministries of War, Post & Telegraph, Justice & Interior. At first Mr. Navab and Prince Farmanfarma were given the responsibility to recover the Crown Jewels from the disgraced king Mohammad Ali Shah who had stolen them and see to his other affairs, mainly to sort out his estate to pay off his debts.

One of the other potentially troublesome tasks for this Executive Committee was to expel Mr. Smirnoff the young king's Russian tutor. This tutor who was a military man was appointed by Mohammad Ali Shah. He and his Russian backers were hoping that the Crown Prince under Smirnoff's tutelage support their cause. And this is why the order was given to expel him, the Russian government became very angry and made a number of threats. But when their threats fell on deaf ears, it chose a conciliatory tone and offered to withdraw half its forces which had come down [under the guise of protecting their subjects when the uprising against Mohammad Ali Shah started in Tabriz] as far down as Qazvin [a town near Teheran] if the interim government agreed to let Smirnoff stay as Ahmad Shah's tutor. But the Executive Committee did not accept this offer and Navab said: How can we let a tutor who is worth half the Russian troops loose in the Persian Court and not think of the consequences?

As a result of this courageous decision the Russians decided to use other means of bringing pressure to bear. One day without prior notice they recalled all the loans made previously to the members of the executive committee [please note that the Iran was bankrupt at the time and was dependent on the two great colonial powers]. Although the above cause enormous difficulty for some members of the committee, Hakim-el-Molk executed the decision already made expelled Smirnoff from Iran and took it on himself to find Iranian tutors for Ahamd Shah, he was also given the task of cleaning up the Qajar Court. He choose a number of liberal learned men such as Abolhassan Foroughi, Kamal-el-Molk [Master Painter], and Mohammad Ali Foroughi [Zoka-el-Molk].

Hakim-el-Molk became a minister and member of cabinet for the first time in the first government formed by Mirza Hassan Khan Mostophie Al Mamalek on the 10th of July 1910  as Chancellor or Secretary of State for Finance. In the third government formed by Vali Khan Sepahsalar Azam he became the Secretary of State for Education and in the next government formed by Samsam-ol-Saltaneh Bakhtiarie became the Secretary of State for Finance. 

After the failure of the fourth government formed by Samsam-ol-Saltaneh Bakhtiarie in which Hakim-el-Molk was Minister of Finance he did not accept any Ministerial roles till the government of Moshir-ol-Doleh on 15th March 1915 when he was appointed again as Minister of Education. He retained the same position in the government of Abdolmajeed Mirza Ein-ol-Doleh. 

His Majesty Sultan Ahamad Shah's CommendationWhile he was Minister of Education he made significant progress in establishment and promotion of  education.  He introduced measures to standardise the curriculum and controls for private schools some of which were run by unscrupulous people to apply the same standards.  In 1911 he passed through legislation in the parliament and obtained government funding to send a number of the top high school graduates to Europe for higher education, 20 to  specialise in Sciences and Engineering subjects while 15 other to specialise in Education who would then concentrate on teaching after returning to Iran.

The students who won the Education scholarships that year went to universities and teacher training schools in Paris. They then returned to Iran taking up teaching posts in the Dar Al Fonoon and Political Science Schools educating numerous others.

In addition to the above Hakim-el-Molk while Minister of Education under Mostofi Al Mamalek and Ala-ol-Saltaneh, endeavoured to establish the first teacher training college in Iran. Prior to this endeavour, Moshir-ol-Doleh had been thinking about the same but because of the many crisis he had to face during his tenure he did not succeed.

Hakim-el-Molk who knew very well that unless teachers were properly trained and fully committed, education in Iran would not improve, worked veryHakim Al Molk Creates The School Of Fine Arts Under Master Kamal Al Molk hard to produced a paper for the Cabinet.  Owing to his tenacity, the Cabinet finally on 2nd October 1917 approved the plan for a teacher training college, allocating 120,000 Rials for this purpose.  But then the government of Ala-ol-Saltaneh failed and Hakim-el-Molk could not realise his dream.  It took over a year and three government changes until the government of Nassir-ol-Doleh approved the charter for the college and this important educational establishment finally opened on 5th November 1918.  

The other great achievement of Hakim-el-Molk was the opening of School of Fine Arts under the chancellorship of the famous master painter Kamal-el-Molk. To honour the old master, and to recognise his contribution to fine arts and encourage him, he gave him the honourary title of Minister of Art. [the Nimrooz newspaper published a recent article on the above subject]

Hakim-el-Molk became Minister of Education twice more in the cabinets of Moshir-ol-Doleh and Samsam-ol-Saltaneh.  When the second governmentHakim Al Molk - Iranian National Trust (Anjoman Assar e Meli) of Samsam-ol-Saltaneh was formed on 18th June 1918 he was appointed as Minister of Finance, as Foreign Minister in Moshir-ol-Doleh's cabinet from 25th January to 9th April 1922, and as Minister of Justice in the latter's second government.

When Reza Shah came took the throne, Hakim-el-Molk withdrew from politics taking up Medicine and writing.  A French-Persian dictionary and a book on Anatomy are his noteworthy examples of his work during this period.

Ebrahim's Credenitals as a Parlimantarian 1949 - Election to the Constitutional AssemblyIn 1934 Reza Shah Pahlavi decided to honour the great Iranian poet Ferdosi by rebuilding and renovating his tomb.  Mohammad Ali Foroughi (Zoka-el-Molk) suggested that the funds for the project to be raised from the state lottery and Hakim-el-Molk be appointed as Chairman of the committee overseeing this project which he finished with honesty and dedication. [Hakim-el-Molk mustEbrahim Hakimi in attendence with Mohammad Rexza Shah have also headed the Society for National Heritage or the Iranian equivalent to the British National Trust, see the document on the right]

In later years when the second constitutional parliament was formed to review the constitution and to form the upper house or the Senate, Hakim-el-Molk became the Father of the House.

In short, Hakim-el-Molk from the start of constitutional monarchy till his death (28th October 1959) became Minister of Education 8 times, Minister of Finance 5 times, Foreign Minister once, and Minister of Justice once in different governments.

After September of 1941 [the Allies occupation of Iran, Reza Shah's abdicated and went into exile, his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi became king] he became Prime Minister of Iran 3 times in the period 1944 to 1947. 




Ebrahim Hakimi's First Marriage

Ebrahim Hakimi

Married his French
wife at turn of
20th century
divorced after
returning to Iran

His son and Granddaughter

Dr Yusef Hakimi, Ebrahim's Son By His French Wife

Dr Yusef's

Ebrahim Hakimi's Grand Daughter, Claudin Hakimi (Khan)

His Second Marriage

Ebrahim Hakimi married his cousin Belghis 'Lagha Doleh' Hakimi 
daughter of Mirza Mahmoud Khan Hakim-el-Molk
after returning to Iran

Lagha Doleh, Mrs Homa Hakimi (Tavakolie), Abdolhamid Hakimi and Ebrahim Hakimi. Photo taken at Abdolhamid's second marriage to Homa Khanoum


With Hashem Hakimi
Together with his sisters and younger brother Abolhassan
Hashem Hakimi and Dr Ezzat Bani-Adam wedding

With step-nephew Simon Farzami

Iran's committee to free Azarbeijan from Russian occupations after WWII

Saving Azarbeijan from Soviet/Russian occupation after WW II
(reference Institute of Contemporary History's Page on Taghizadeh)
1. Nassrollah Entezam. 2. Bagher Kazemii 3. Hassan Taghizadeh 4. Ali Soheilie 5. Mostafa Adl 6. Abassali Khalatbari
Standing directly behind Taghizadeh is AH

After the Second World War, the United Nations was formed first in London then moved to New York so AH had to leave Switzerland. He stayed as a senior diplomat with the UN for some years before retiring and returning to Iran.  I recently found a photo of him when UN was just formed after WW II in London. In the photo below he is standing behind Hassan Taghizadeh who was the Iranian representative at the UN. The picture is taken with the committee formed to present Iran's case against the allies continued occupation of Iran in 1946/7 in the Security Council.  The process was started by Ebrahim Hakimi which eventually caused the downfall of his government. There was enormous pressure on Iran to withdraw the complaint by the British and Russian governments. This was one of the first complaints to the new formed Security Council.  The odd man out in the picture is Ali Soheili (a well know politician and war time minister and prime minister).  According to my grandfather, Abdolhamid Hakimi's memoires, Ebrahim Hakimi secretly asked Ali Soheilie to leave his post as the Ambassador in Egypt and travel to London and quietly negotiate a settlement with the Soviets. Soheilie was trusted by the prime minister as compatriots from Azarbaijan they knew each other. Soheilie personally knew the Russian Foreign Minister having worked in the Russian consulate in Teheran in his youth. Soheilie managed to reach a secret face saving agreement for the Soviet forces to leave Iran but the Shah under pressure from the British and the Russians was led to believe his reign was in danger and the Russian forces were about to move into Teheran (Soviet Forces controlled Northern half of Iran sitting 5KM outside Teheran) to remove him similar to his father. The Shah therefore dismissed Hakimi's government but not before the complaint was submitted at the UN. Though it was too late for the secret agreement with the Soviets to reach the prime minister Ebrahim Hakimi. Later Soviets left Iran under direct pressure from President Truman (but the incumbent prime minister, Ahmad Ghavam was quick to take the credit for himself ).

UN Security Council Resolutions

01/01/1964 : S/RES/2(1946) [ English ]


01/01/1964 : S/RES/3(1946) [ English ]


08/05/1946 : S/RES/5(1946) [ English ]



Hakimi and Azarbaijan Crisis in Persian
Taqhizadeh Recollections

 دستور شکایت به سازمان ملل و مقاومت حکیمی
زندگی طوفانی - خاطرات تقی زاده

Premier Hakimi Resigns

دولت حکیمی استفاء میدهد - به زبان انگلیسی

1945: Pro-Russia Iran?: IN OUR PAGES:100, 75 AND 50 YEARS AGO
TEHRAN - Iranian Premier Hakimi is expected to resign within a week, and will probably be replaced by the pro-Russian Ghavam Saltaneh, a former Premier.Premier Hakimi is scheduled to reply tomorrow [Dec. 2] to the Soviet note denying passage of Iranian troops to the northwestern trouble spots on the grounds that their presence would "cause bloodshed."The expected resignation follows the replacement of the Mayor of Tehran by Mahmud Hahriman, known to be a Soviet sympathizer.

1946/01/21 The Advertiser - Adelaide
Dispute Placed With Security Council
Australian Associated Press
LONDON, January 20, 1946

The Persian delegation to the United Nations conference yesterday notified the General Assembly that it had decided to request the Secretary-General of UN to bring Persia's dispute with Russia, "in connection with Russia's interferences in the internal affairs of Persia," to the attention of tha Security Council for in vestigation and necessary recommendation of he appropriate terms of settlement. The decision, which was conveyed to the executive secretary of UN in a letter under the signature of Persia's chief delegate (Seyed Hassan Taquizadeh) asked that action be taken under Articles 35, sub-paragraph one, which provides that any nation may bring to the attention of the Council any dispute likely to endanger international peace.

"Stream Of Abuse From Russia"
Australian Associated Press
LONDON, January 19, 1946
The presence of an immense armed force in closer occupation than throughout the war increases the atmosphere of tension in which Persia has submitted her case to the United Nations Security Council, says a correspondent of the "Daily Telegraph" in Tehran.
There is a constantly increasing stream of abuse Against the Persian Government from Moscow radio. The official Russian news agency, Tass, reigns supreme in Tabriz while the Russians refuse to permit foreign correspondents to enter Azerbaijan. An enormous army blankets the area from Azerbaijan to Khorassan.
The "Democrats'* In Azerbaijan are holding locomotives and railway stock, possibly with a view to an armed descent on the capital, adds the correspondent. It Is also significant that the Russians retain full control of the railways In the north, while those in the south were handed over to Persia when aid to Russia ceased in July, 1946.
Moscow radio, quoting the Tehran newspaper "Mardam" said that large numbers of plainclothes gendarmes were being sent daily to the northern areas of Persia, where they carried out terroristic activities against progressive parties.


 Portrait of Ebrahim Hakimi painted by the master Iranian painter Kamalelmolk (Mohamad Ghaffari). The picture hangs in Niavaran Palace in Shemiran, Tehran, Iran.


Ebrahim Hakimi's Bio in Iranica - Click here (you will need their Font and Instructions)

A Glimpse Into the Constitutional Movement after Mohammad Ali Qajar
Letter From Tabriz in Persian z

Securing the Persian Crown Jewels (1911)

The one thing that supporters and detractors of Ebrahim Hakimi agree on is his total honesty and integrity, he was appointed to the committee which retrieved the Crown Jewels of Iran from the deposed Qajar king Mohammad Ali Shah and later as Minister of Finance  took steps to ensure their safe keeping. During this period he must have worked with the American consultant Morgan Shuster who was appointed by Iranians to help manage country's dire financial position and back breaking debts acummulated by the Qajars to the two colonnial powers, who later insisted on the dismissal of Morgan Shuster by the democratic government of Iran. Shuster became so disgusted that he wrote a book about his experiences calling it "Strangling of Persia", a damning inditement of  Russia and Britain.  Below are historic letters from Shuster to Hakimi reporting on the setting up a commission of trustees to secure the Persian crown jewels (1911):

Cover Letter 1  
Cover Letter 2
Report 1
Report 2
Report 3
Report 4

For Persian Translation of the cover letter follows later in this document

RETURN OF " THE OLD GENTLEMEN" In 1942 Iranian neutrality discarded by the Allied forces, a country under occupation, its king forcibly removed from the throne by the British (one of the two colonial powers responsible in the previous 150 years for what Morgan Shuster termed "Strangling of Persia", the other being our northern neighbour Russia), the deposed king before leaving Iran turned to those he had once set aside 20 years earlier entrusting the country and his son in his hour of need for he knew it was their cunning and experience that was needed, the same old gentlemen later performed their duty and somehow or other managed to muster International pressure to dislodge the lingering Allied forces from Iranian soil (Russian forces had occupied all of northern Iran and were camped within five Kilometers of Teheran and were refusing to leave long after the Second World War had ended) and somehow prevented the fragmentation of Iran. They have never been thanked for their efforts and courage, quite the contrary they were not afforded the respect they deserve and have been continually slandered then and now, but their record speaks for itself:

 Photo of "the old gentlemen" after Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's first audience (1320)


Primie Ministerial Appointment

The first dispute at the newly formed Security Council:  In 1324/1946 Iranians faced two crisis triggered by Soviets refusal to withdraw from Iran in defiance of the Tehran Declaration by the Allied heads of state in 1943, his government and Ambassador to the UN submitted Iran's complaint to the newly formed UN (in London) and Security Council (the first dispute to be submitted to the latter) despite enormous pressure not just from the Russians but also the British (which explains Bullard's invective against Hakimi in his letters, see Letters From Teheran). Hakimi having withstood the pressure to see Iran's case submitted then had no choice to resign as the British-Russo focused their pressure on the young king making his tenure impossible with the parliament in disarray as well. After his government fell, Truman disgusted with the events in Iran (in practice he dismissed his envoy to Iran) put pressure on Stalin to remove his troops from Iranian soil but Ghavam who later became prime minister through his newspaper later claimed the credit. Later Mohammad Reza Shah learnt of the behind the scenes manouvers by the British, the Russians and Ghavam became incensed and removed Ghavam's title (conversations with Abdolhamid Hakimi).  The Persian UN representative during Hakimi's tenure was Hassan Taghizadeh, Hakimi's old comrade and friend from Azarbijan and Constitutional Movement:

*** Text of telegram from Hassan Taghizadeh Persian UN Representative to Hakimi 1324/1946 ***


شيخ ابراهيم زنجانى دربارهً دوستان خود در اين زمان که عموماً اعضاى لژ بيدارى ايران واز آزاديخواهان بودند 

چندنفر در مجلس قانون‌‌فهم بودند. از جمله، آقايان مشيرالدوله و مؤتمن‌الملک و ذکاءالملک و من بوديم. تقي‌زاده بهترين همه بود. افسوس که رفت(١). سليمان ميرزا و حسينقلى خان نواب هم بد نبودند... اما در اخلاق و علم و همه چيز اوّلين مرد بلکه افتخار ايران ذکاءالملک [فروغي] است. مشيرالدوله در پاکى و وطن‌خواهى و قانون‌دانى و فعاليت مرد طاق است. مؤتمن‌الملک در درستى و فهم حقيقت و استقامت يگانه آفاق. همه اين بزرگان دوست روحانى و حقيقى من هستند. آقاى حاجى سيد‌نصرالله [تقوي] شخص پاک امين آزاديخواه اديب است. برادرِ من است. از افتخارات ايران آقاى کمال‌الملک رئيس مدرسه نقاشى جانِ من است. آقاى حکيم‌الملک، که يگانه آزاديخواه وطن‌دوست امين درست صديق وفا‌‌پرور درست‌کردار و راست‌کار است، يگانه دوست عالى من است. سردار‌‌اسعد، آن رادمرد علم‌پرور ترقيخواه بزرگوار دلير بخشنده وطن‌دوست امين پاک که تا آخر پاک از جهان رفت، دوست عالى من بود. دکتر حسين‌‌خان کحال، که از وکلا نبود اما شخص آزاديخواه خوبى بود، از دوستان حقيقى من بود. ارباب کيخسرو مرد منظم کاردان پاک از دوستان من است. مي‌دانيد که حاجي‌ ‌سياح و فرزندان او با من يگانه و يک‌خانه هستند. مرحوم دبيرالملک با من دوست بود. 

(١) به خاطر دسيسه هاى سياسى ديگران مجبور به مهاجرت شد


از سمت راست: [نشسته روى صندلي:] کمال‌الملک، [ايستاده:] شيخ ابراهيم زنجاني، همايون سياح، دکتر حسين کحال، عباسقلي، ابوالحسن فروغي، ارباب کيخسرو شاهرخ، عزالملک. [نشسته روى صندلي:] دبيرالملک. [نشسته در وسط از سمت راست عکس:] ابراهيم حکيمى (حکيم‌الملک)، سيد نصرالله اخوى (تقوي)، محمدعلى فروغى (ذکاءالملک). 


مجلس دوم 
آيا پنجمين تن از چپ در رديف آخر ابراهيم حکيمى است؟ 

از دست چپ حاج محمد کريم خان کشکولى يا ناصر خسرو قشقايى؟، 
ابراهيم حکيمى (حکيم الملک) و اسماعيل (رکن الملک) حکيمى 


ترجمه نامه ویلیام مورگان شوستر درباره جواهر دولتی به وزیر دارائی وقت (حکیم الملک) مورخ ۲٨ سپتامبر ۱۱٩۱ (۱۲۹۰)


مفتخرا باطلاع هیئت وزیران میرساند. پیرو دستورهای روزگذشته آن هیئت  اینجانب به اتفاق جناب وزیر پست وتلگراف بحضور والاحضرت نایب السلطنه شرفیاب شده و معظم له را درجریان طرح کمسیون دائمی حراست ازجواهردولتی که تشکیل آن به اتفاق آرا بتصویب هیئت وزیران رسیده است گذاردیم.

والاحضرت پس از خواندن متن تصویبنامه موافقت کامل خودرا با منظور این طرح و تشکیل کمسیون اعلام فرمودند. همچنین شخصیتهائیکه برای عضویت دراین کمسیون درنظرگرفته شده اند مورد موافقت ایشان قرارگرفت .

معهذا والاحضرت ایرادهایی داشتند که قطعاتوسط جناب وزیرپست وتلگراف به آگاهی هیئت وزیران رسیده است.

یکی از ایرادهای معظم له این بود که تصمیم اخیردولت درشرایط فعلی ممکن است در توده مردم ایجادنگرانی وترس بنماید .

 بنظر اینجانب درشرایط کنونی و موفقیت نیروهای دولت برسالارالدوله این ایراد دیگروارد نیست.

در رابطه بانکته دیگربه نظر والاحضرت نایب السلطنه از جنبه قانونی برخی ازمفاد قراردادتحویل وحراست جواهردولتی ممکن است گهگاه  فاقد اثر باشد.

 ناگزیراست به استحضاربرساند که دراینمورد بانظر والاحضرت موافق نیستم و اطمینان دارم که مصوبات هیئت وزیران موجب پیشرفت رضایتبخش دولت مشروطه خواهد شد.

 مفتخرم دونسخه بزبان فرانسه  و فارسی دستورهای مصوبه روزگذشته هیئت وزیران را به پیوست تقدیم نمایم.

 جناب آقای وزیر

 خواهشمنداست احترامات فائقه مرابپذیرید

 و. مورگان شوستر



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